Is the ocean broken?

Discussion in 'All Things Boats & Boating' started by daiquiri, Oct 24, 2013.

  1. Yobarnacle
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    Yobarnacle Senior Member holding true course

    The polar bear IS a grizzly adapted to ice and eating seals. That's why they can inter-breed and produce fertile offspring.One of the benchmarks of a different species is different species can't produce fertile offspring hybrids. Polar and Grizzly offspring are fertile. Labels are manmade. Calling polar bears a different species was a manmade classification. In reality, Polar bears aren't more different than brown bears than different dog breeds differ. A more correct label is polar bears are a different breed of brown bear.. Labels are stickers easily peeled off.
    Accepted science is full of errors no scientist wants to admit or correct. Admitting long held errors makes them look fallible, less wise, less god-like. So much is consensus minus fact.
    I am not anti-science. I am anti-the know all, can explain all, culture of putting scientists on pedestals. The last time I looked, scientists are human and just as fallible and culpable as the rest of us.
     
    Last edited: May 6, 2021
  2. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Your understanding of what makes a species is woefully lacking. While it is true that distantly related species (a cow and a horse, for instance) cannot interbreed, many closely related species can interbreed. So, for instance, mallard ducks are very promiscuous, being able to successfully breed with as many as 12 other duck species.

    Mallard Duck Hybrids & Mutations
    Mallards can interbreed with:
    pintail, muscovy, lesser scaup, Egyptian goose, black duck, and many others.

    You can start to get yourself up to speed about the many ways that species are defined by reading the Wikipedia entry. Note, in particular, the first section entitled "Definition."

    Species
    Contents
    see also: Great Dane to Chihuahua: How Do We Know Dogs Are the Same Species?
     
  3. Yobarnacle
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    Yobarnacle Senior Member holding true course

    Back at you, your understanding of what makes a species is woefully lacking!
    My argument is the term species is an invention. actually, multiple inventions since there are dozens of definitions currently used. In other words, an unreliable term often misapplied on a whim. Just as you would never trust someone who redefines his words to suit his agenda. Science and people are only as good as their word.

    How many species concepts are there? https://www.theguardian.com/science/punctuated-equilibrium/2010/oct/20/3

    .
     
    Last edited: May 6, 2021
  4. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    All of human language is an invention. It is what it is. As we learn more we have to adapt our language to explain our new knowledge. It can get messy really fast, but we do the best we can. So it is not helpful to complain about our languages' imperfections. It is really helpful to accept that scientists are making a good-faith effort to use language as clearly as they can, all the while knowing that as they learn more older definitions will likely have to be changed -- which can be confusing for some who don't believe that scientists are making good-faith efforts.
     
  5. Yobarnacle
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    Yobarnacle Senior Member holding true course

    Ah, an apologist defending confusion and bad science? Not accepted. The left loves to redefine terms and is not operating in good faith. Not acceptable or trustworthy. Communication is impossible without a common language with agreed upon definitions. That's why there is a law dictionary defining legal terms. It's necessary! Essential!
     
  6. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    You are not operating in good-faith. Defining terms is always complex. Scientists do better than most in defining the words that they use. The Wikipedia entry for "species" goes to great length to explain and define what is meant.

    English word with the most meanings
    The word with the most meanings in English is the verb 'set', with 430 senses listed in the Second Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, published in 1989. The word commands the longest entry in the dictionary at 60,000 words, or 326,000 characters.
    Given the above, it is truly amazing that we can hold a typical conversation and (usually) understand each other!
     
  7. Will Gilmore
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    Will Gilmore Senior Member

    "male Muscovy Ducks frequently mate with other species and often produce sterile hybrid offspring."
    Muscovy Duck Overview, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Muscovy_Duck/overview#
    "In North America, females can be tricky to distinguish from American Black Duck, Mottled Duck, and Mexican Duck where ranges overlap. Those species are all darker-bodied than Mallard. A good view of the wing can be helpful, too: white wingbars on the leading and trailing edges of the blue wing patch are bolder on Mallard. Frequently hybridizes with those species, which can be even more confusing. Any bird with extensive white in the tail or curled feathers above the tail has some Mallard genes."
    https://ebird.org/species/mallar3

    It is well known that donkeys and horses produce mules, but they are sterile. They are much more closely related than a horse and a cloven hooved animal.

    I know nothing about the differences or similarities of polar bears or grizzly bears except one is white and one is brown while both are huge and considered highly aggressive. What is the disposition of the Pizzly? Maybe a distinction cam be made between a Pizzly Bear and a Grolar Bear https://www.beeradvocate.com/beer/profile/42160/208039/

    -Will
     
  8. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Researchers find climate change impacts plankton, a key marine food source
    • Scientists investigated how planktonic foraminifera adapted to changing climatic conditions over the last 700,000 years, or seven global ice age
    • They concluded that the species maintained a static thermal niche over the period
    • This suggests that they would need to seek out suitable habitats or risk extinction if the climate change were sudden and dramatic
    • In comparison, zooplankton species with flexible niches would be able to adapt to such changing conditions
    • While it is unlikely foraminifera will completely disappear from our oceans in the event of a sudden warming event, they would most probably redistribute across the world. This will likely have a cascade effect on the rest of the marine food-chain.
    The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
     
  9. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Does ocean acidification alter fish behavior? Fraud allegations create a sea of doubt

    ......In 2009, Munday and Dixson began to publish evidence that ocean acidification—a knock-on effect of the rising carbon dioxide (CO2) level in Earth’s atmosphere—has a range of striking effects on fish behavior, such as making them bolder and steering them toward chemicals produced by their predators. As one journalist covering the research put it, “Ocean acidification can mess with a fish’s mind.” The findings, included in a 2014 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), could ultimately have “profound consequences for marine diversity” and fisheries, Munday and Dixson warned.

    But their work has come under attack. In January 2020, a group of seven young scientists, led by fish physiologist Timothy Clark of Deakin University in Geelong, Australia, published a Nature paper reporting that in a massive, 3-year study, they didn’t see these dramatic effects of acidification on fish behavior at all.....​
     
  10. Yobarnacle
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    Yobarnacle Senior Member holding true course

    Should Munday and Dixson return the money they got for research and publications during those years?

    I expect more and more scientific accusations of fraud and refutations of "science is settled" AGW arguments in the near future. You can fool some of the people all the time and all the people some of the time, but never all people for very long..Some of us were never fooled.
     
  11. hoytedow
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    hoytedow Fly on the Wall - Miss ddt yet?

    The word obfuscation comes to mind.
     
  12. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    I find it very reassuring that the peer review process in the scientific community is alive and well. Scientists are human and make mistakes -- and, sadly, sometimes even commit fraud. The scientific process is as good a system as any we humans have come up with to keep ourselves on the straight and narrow.
     
  13. hoytedow
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    hoytedow Fly on the Wall - Miss ddt yet?

    Gobbledygook.
     
  14. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member


  15. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Chimera (genetics)
    A genetic chimerism or chimera (/kaɪˈmɪərə/ ky-MEER-ə or /kɪˈmɪərə/ kə-MEER-ə, also spelled chimaera or chimæra) is a single organism composed of cells with more than one distinct genotype. In animals, this means an individual derived from two or more zygotes, which can include possessing blood cells of different blood types, subtle variations in form (phenotype) and, if the zygotes were of differing sexes, then even the possession of both female and male sex organs[1] (this is just one of many different phenomena that may result in intersexuality). Animal chimeras are produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs. In plant chimeras, however, the distinct types of tissue may originate from the same zygote, and the difference is often due to mutation during ordinary cell division. Normally, genetic chimerism is not visible on casual inspection; however, it has been detected in the course of proving parentage.[2]

    Contents
     
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