# Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project B20-R

Discussion in 'Hydrodynamics and Aerodynamics' started by Rabah, May 10, 2019.

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### RabahSenior Member

Hello dear readers of the forum Boat Design.net”,

I bring to your attention a new theme: « Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project B20-R »

I devote this publication to my grandson Stanislav М. with the hope that he will be a very good and very skilled engineer!

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Purpose of the present publication

1.2 Used methods under existing programs and bibliography

2 Reduction of the quantity of the surfaces included in the Shell Plating of the hull model on project B20-R

3 Characteristics of the used model of project B20-R

4 Features of calculation in program Orca3D

5 Features of calculation in program NavCad

6 Features of calculation in program FreeShip +

7 Features of calculation in program Maxsurf Resistance

8 Comparative diagrams by the results of the calculation of the power

9 Conclusions

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose of the present publication

To show hydrodynamic calculations for motor displacement yachts executed by various methods on four different programs, and to compare the received results to the data on trial runs of the constructed vessel.

The General Director of company SeaTech in Nizhni Novgorod-Russia - NA Peter Ezhov, has given me for this purpose computer model of a yacht - project B20-R, as a file of program Rhinoceros, some photos from launch of the vessel, calculation of resistance of water and power of the propulsion installation, executed by company SeaTech, and the data received as a result of sea trials of the vessel. Not each company makes such noble gesture. Usually such results do not reach broad masses of experts on hydrodynamics of small motor boats.

Such statistical data are the invaluable manual for the young experts engaged small motor ships.

1.2 Used methods under existing programs and bibliography

1.2.1 Methods for displacement ships under program Maxsurf Resistance v.21.14 from 2018.

- Method Holtrop - under 5 publications:

Holtrop, J., “A Statistical Analysis of Performance Test Results”

International Shipbuilding Progress, February 1977.

Holtrop, J., “Statistical Data for the Extrapolation of Model Performance Tests”

Netherlands Ship Model Basin (NSMB) Paper 588, May 1978.

Holtrop, J. and G.J. Mennen., “A Statistical Power Prediction Method”

NSMB Paper 603, October 1978.

Holtrop, J. and G.J. Mennen., “An Approximate Power Prediction Method”

NSMB Paper 689, July 1982.

Holtrop J., “A Statistical Re-analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data”

International Shipbuilding Progress, Volume 31, No. 363, November 1984.

- Method Compton - by publication Compton, R., “Resistance of a Systematic Series of Semi-Planing Transom-Stern Hulls” Marine Technology, v23, No.4, October 1986.

- Method Fung - by publication Fung, S.C. and Leibman, L., “Revised Speed-Dependent Powering Predictions for High Speed Transom Stern Hull Forms” FAST ' 95: Third International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation, Lubeck Travemunde, September 1995

- Method Van Oortmerssen - under publications:

Oortmerssen, G., “A Power Prediction Method and its Application to Small Ships” International Shipbuilding Progress, vol 18, No.207 1971

Helmore, P.J., “Update on van Oortmerssen's resistance prediction” RINA - International Maritime Conference, Pacific 2008, pp. 437 - 448

1.2.2 Methods for displacement ships under program HydroComp NavCad 2005 /2011 Edition/

- Method CRTS - by publication Fung, S., "Resistance and Powering Prediction for Transom Stern Hull Forms During Early Stage Ship Design", SNAME Transactions, Vol. 99, 1991.

- Method HSTS - by publication Fung, S.C. and Leibman, L., "Revised Speed-Dependent Powering Predictions for High-Speed Transom Stern Hull Forms", Proceedings Third International Conference of Fast Sea Transportation (FAST ' 95), Germany, 1995.

- Method Holtrop 1984 - under publications:

Holtrop, J., "A Statistical Resistance Prediction Method with a Speed Dependent Form Factor ", Proceedings SMSSH ' 88, Varna, Oct 1988.

Holtrop, J., "A Statistical Re-Analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 31, No. 363 Nov 1984.

Holtrop, J. and Mennen, G.G.J., "An Approximate Power Prediction Method", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 29, No. 335, Jul 1982.

- Method De Groot RB - by publication De Groot, D., "Resistance and Propulsion of Motor-Boats", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1955.

1.2.3 Method Holtrop 1984/mod/-under program Orca3D v.1.4 WIP from 2018, plug-in for Rhinoceros v.5

The method is created under publications:

Holtrop, J., "A Statistical Re-Analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 31, No. 363, November 1984.

Holtrop, J. and Mennen, G.G.J., "An Approximate Power Prediction Method", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 29, No. 335, July 1982.

ITTC, Proceedings of the 15th ITTC, The Hague, The Netherlands, published by the Netherlands Ship Model Basin, Wageningen, 1978.

1.2.4 Methods under program FreeShip+, v.3.50 from 2015 - Author NA Victor Timoshenko

- Method Holtrop 1988 (84) - under publication Holtrop from 1984 and Holtrop, Mennen from 1982.

- Method Fung-Leibman 1995 under publication Fung, Leibman from 1995 for round bilge military ships

- Method De Groot - under the publication from 1951 for high-speed round bilge boats

- Method according to modelling experiment - OST 5.0181-75 - for anyone displacement ships

2. Reduction of the quantity of the surfaces included in the Shell Plating of the hull model on project B20-R

2.1 To receive model for calculation of the Resistance and Power with program Orca3D it is enough to remove the superstructure from the Rhinoceros file. Therefore, we shall receive model of the hull of the vessel from the bottom up to the main deck and from the transom in the stern up to the bulbous nose (see the enclosed file with frames, buttocks and waterlines).

2.2 More difficult is reception of model without deviations from the valid contours of the vessel, suitable for work with program Maxsurf Resistance.

The problem arises because of that that all cut off surfaces in the Rhino file at import from Rhino in Maxsurf Modeler by means of the file format IGES, or at direct use Rhino file in Maxsurf Modeler, turn out not cut off.

Here to help there has come program Delftship Pro v.4.03. From existing Rhino file has removed all superfluous, has left only surfaces of one board (the bottom, the side and the reverse chine ﬂats) and by means of the IGES file imported in Delftship Pro. At once the unpleasant problem is visible - not cut off surfaces of the bottom and the side go in parallel each other as "bottom - side", and not cut off surface of the reverse chine ﬂats crosses them. They are not accepted finally cut off neither in Delftship Pro, nor in Maxsurf Modeler.

The problem can be solved as follows:

To receive traces of contour lines, using function of crossing of surfaces in Delftship Pro.

To remove superfluous parts of the bottom and the side under and above these lines (for the side to remove the lower part, and for the bottom to remove the top part).

To create a new surface of the reverse chine ﬂats on control points of the received contour lines of the bottom and the side, and the old not cut off - to remove.

Having contours of the bottom, the reverse chine ﬂats and the side, it is necessary to measure only in the Rhino file height of the transom from BL and to create a point in CL at the level of height of transom in program Delftship Pro. It is already easy to make the surface of the transom which in the top part reaches the horizontal stern platform.

All « leak points », shown by green color in program Delftship Pro (at a choice are shown by yellow color in the program FreeShip +), are above the level of the waterline determined at full displacement (draft aft Taft = 1,25m). They can be seen in the enclosed file.

It is enough four received surfaces for performance of calculations on hydrodynamics of the vessel. We import surfaces of the bottom, the side, the transom and the reverse chine ﬂats with help of the IGES file from Delftship Pro in Maxsurf Modeler.

On the received model it is determined the Forward and the Aft perpendiculars. The Forward Perpendicular (FP) passes through the point of crossing DWL (in case with a trim) with the line of the stem in CL on levels Tforw = 1,1m from BL. The Aft perpendicular (AP) coincides from the aft edge of the horizontal platform in CL, on 0,25m aft from the transom.

We fix average draft 1,19m (equal keel) for full displacement 54,8t and we determine quantity of frames, buttocks and waterlines.

We keep the file of model in program Maxsurf Modeler.

We open this model in Maxsurf Stability and hydrostatic calculation of initial stability with a trim 0,15m and displacement 54,8t is made.

We keep results of calculation with a trim then to use them for specification of entrance parameters in program Maxsurf Resistance.

2.3 In program FreeShip +, v.3.50, there is an opportunity of direct opening of model, and also, separate entering of necessary entrance parameters.

If the model is already made in Delftship Pro, we keep it in version 2.6 of program Delftship Pro and directly is opened in FreeShip +, then we keep in last version 3.50 and we carry out calculations of resistance and capacity.

Method Holtrop of program FreeShip+ supposes introduction of the entrance data about DWL with a trim.

In other methods the program demands input of parameters from initial stability the vessel to equal keel, with average draft 1,19m, at preservation of size of displacement 54,8t.

2.4 In program NavCad 2005 there is no opportunity to take ready model that then to execute calculations of resistance and power as it was possible in programs Orca3D, Maxsurf Resistance and FreeShip+.

Such opportunity is only in the new version NavCad Premium 2018, with use of the model made in program Rhinoceros.

Therefore, for work we shall use entrance data given programs Maxsurf Resistance which coincide with the required entrance data for program NavCad 2005 (behind small exception).

As well as in Maxsurf Resistance, in NavCad 2005 there is an opportunity to use the data on DWL with a trim.

Continuation follows!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria

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• ###### B20-R-Model in Maxsurf Resistance-03022019.png
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### RabahSenior Member

Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project B20-R
/ continuation /

3. Characteristics of the used model of project B20-R

Full displacement of the vessel in fresh water, agrees to the data of sea trials 54,8t at drafts Tforw=1,1m and Taft=1,25m.

Coordinates of CG:

Xg = 8,59m (from AP, taking place on 0,25m in aft from the transom);

Yg = 0,00m;

Zg = 2,24m from BL.

Operational speed - 9 kts, maximal - 12 kts.

Class of the vessel on River Register of Russia: М-СПмс 3,5 (лед 20) A;

Class of the vessel on GIMS EMERCOM-Russia - Кс III, area of navigation – III category of complexity.

The maximal power of engines =2 x 155 hp = 2 x 114 kW.

Other data can be seen in the hydrostatics calculations executed on programs Orca3D and Maxsurf Stability enclosed to the publication (see the enclosed files). The given calculations are executed in case with a trim 0,15m (0,432deg) at D=54,8t.

As for the account of the influence of the head wind which speed for class М-СПмс is accepted equal 13,4 m/s (26,05 kts), it is necessary to know the transverse and longitudinal wind areas.

The transverse wind area easily calculate on the usual way manually.

The longitudinal wind area is designed by means of program Delftship Pro v.4.03 (see the enclosed file of the silhouette of the yacht).

Design altitude of the wave for this class - h3%= 3,5m.

If careful to look on the transom of the model in the Rhino file, we shall see, that the breaking in the plan transom represent a combination from three flat surfaces: one central - in CL, and two lateral - on sides.

Unfortunately, at use of the model in Maxsurf Resistance, the program perceives in quality of transom only the central surface, therefore erroneous sizes for Transom area (the immersed area of transom) and TransomWLbeam (the width of the transom on the waterline) in entrance parameters for the further calculations was received.

It was necessary to calculate them manually. It was turned out:

- The immersed area of transom= 1,14m^2

- The width of the transom on the waterline at full displacement = 4,26m

One more of sizes which is easier for calculating manually, is immersion of the transom: 1,25 - 0,96 = 0,29m,

Where 1,25m = Taft,

0,96m - distance from the bottom point of the transom in CL to BL.

Fortunately program Maxsurf Resistance allows to correct or add in addition some sizes and after that renews final calculation on the corrected data.

The area of transverse section of the bulb on Forward Perpendicular /Bulbtransversearea/= 0,018m^2; coordinate on axis Z of CG of section of the bulb /ZBulb/= 0,899m from BL and half angle of entrance of WL in the bow (½ angleofentrance) = 14,073 deg, was used from received at calculation of resistance and towing capacity on method Holtrop on program Orca3D.

Dead rise of the bottom on 50 % LWL at a trim it is accepted in Maxsurf Resistance identical with size at WL without a trim = 6,7deg.

Continuation follows!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria

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• ###### B20-R - Design Specified Condition, trim =0,15m and 0m-09032019.pdf
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### RabahSenior Member

Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project B20-R
/ continuation /

4. Features of calculation in program Orca3D

In program Orca3D the unique method for calculation of resistance and power for a displacement ships - Holtrop, is submitted.

To the received size of resistance of the naked hull 10 % reserve are added.

To receive the maximal propulsion power specified in specifications and certificates of firms - manufacturers of engines on which further the designer chooses engines, it is necessary to accept the general propulsion efficiency from 50 up to 70 %. For project B20-R this efficiency is accepted 50 %.

The program makes calculation of resistance and power, only if design hydrostatic calculation of the vessel on DWL is preliminary designed. If the normals to some surfaces are directed in inside vessel, the program corrects them.

The ready model in Rhino is then used.

The program itself checks model and fixes all parameters necessary for calculation.

Final results of calculation and graphs it is kept in general pdf file.

See the final file in attachment.

5. Features of calculation in program NavCad

As already it was spoken earlier in program NavCad 2005, as against other three programs, there is no opportunity to use ready model.

All entrance data are necessary for bringing manually.

Almost all data it is possible to use from the table of the entrance data of the program Maxsurf Resistance.

First of all, it is necessary to choose metric system.

Then, in the first dialogue window kinematic viscosity and density of water in specified, under the task, area of navigation - fresh water are filled.

After that the range of speeds - from 5 up to 16 kts is filled.

In the second dialogue window the data on the hull are brought, and the program at once calculate ratio between them.

The trim is taken into account by filling of the following sizes: maximal design draft 1,25m and a trim in aft 0,15m.

In the third dialogue window it is filled nothing, as there is no information on the areas of appendage.

In the fourth dialogue window it is necessary to bring in the data on the wind-wave mode of the specified area of navigation:

- Design speed of the wind;

- Angle of direction of the rate of the vessel in relation to the direction of the wind and wave. The angle = 0 deg - the heaviest case (counter wave and wind) is accepted;

- The areas and the CG of the transverse and longitudinal wind area;

- Type of the vessel - passenger;

- Height of the wave of security 3 % = 3,5m;

- The maximal period of the rough sea = 7,7 s;

- Design depth of water = 10m.

In fifth (last) dialogue window the percent for a reserve, attached to size of resistance of the naked hull is filled. For the stage of final designing in program NavCad 2005 it is accepted 4 %.

After filling the entrance data, we press button "Bare-hull" in the left part of the screen with an inscription "vessel drag" and it is chosen "calc" (calculation).

Then it is already possible to press the button for a choice of methods for calculation.

By pressing this button there is a dialogue window. In it with dark blue color, shows four recommended methods - Holtrop 1984, CRTS, HSTS and De Groot RB, as the most suitable for application.

If color is pink - is considered method good, if it is black - the method is considered comprehensible with a clause and if red - the method is unacceptable.

Preservation of results is better for making in format Word and then to transform docx file in pdf.

Graphs of resistance and power are initially kept in bmp file then they should be transferred in pdf.

After final calculations on all methods in program NavCad all received pdf files are united in one general.

See the final file in attachment.

Continuation follows!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria

#### Attached Files:

• ###### B20-R-Holtrop Analysis Report, D=54,85t, trim 0,432deg-Orca3D-09032019.pdf
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### RabahSenior Member

Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project B20-R
/ continuation /

6. Features of calculation in program FreeShip+
The entrance data are entered in two dialogue windows.
In the first the specification data are input:
а) The general data: the minimal, design and maximal speed; density and viscosity of fresh water.
b) The data on the hull - are possible two variants:
- To take the data of the current model on the project;
- To enter the data manually.
As against program NavCad, here it is required not maximal design draft, but only draft on midship 1,19m.
The trim should be specified only at calculation on method Holtrop, but with negative it is familiar, as in the program the positive trim in the bow is accepted.
The immersed area of the transom - as in Maxsurf Resistance.
Absolute roughness-150 microns for a new vessel.
The factor of the stern form is equal (-24) at method Holtrop (from help).
Quantity of screws equally to two, exception of method De Groot; diameter of the screw is equal 0,56m from the data on sea trials, with exception of method De Groot at which it is necessary to accept only 1 screw with diameter 0,812m.
We select « Extract half entrance angle from model».
c) The additional data in the second dialogue window:
- Time of stay in water of 0 months for the new hull
- Height of the wave of security 3 % - 3,5m
- Course angle of moving wave and wind - 0 deg
- Speed of the wind - 13,4m/s
- Height of the free board - 1,525m
- Density of air - 1,226 kg / m^3
- Middle height of superstructure above DWL- 4,22m
- Design depth of water - 10m
- The immersed area of the middle section- 4,57m^2 (according to model)
- Type of the vessel - 1 (passenger)
- For appendage- there is no information on the areas

Then in the main window we press the button « To begin calculation ». After calculation the size for the factor which is taking into account operational conditions as follows is automatically filled:
- For method Holtrop Ке = 1,32
- For method De Groot Ке = 1,44
- For method Fung-Leibman Ке = 1,762
- For a method of modelling experiment Ке = 1,44
This factor /Sea margin coefficient/ show as far as it is necessary to increase size of the resistance and towing power to take into account operational conditions.
To take into account data Ке in calculation, it is necessary to make a mark (to put a tick).
Then results turn out:
- Graphs of curves of resistance and power in the basic window
- Results of calculation and the entrance data in the third dialogue window
The entrance data and results of calculation are save in one pdf file, and graphs - in other pdf file. Two files it is united in one for each of four methods. At last all files on four methods it is united in one and it is save.
See the final file in attachment.

7. Features of calculation in program Maxsurf Resistance
After input of the entrance data, in programs Orca3D, NavCad and FreeShip+ calculation of final results is carried out simultaneously for definition of the resistance of the naked hull and towing power, and also the maximal resistance and maximal propulsion power.
But in program Maxsurf Resistance calculations are carried out separately:
- Once - without taking into account the head wind - for definition of the resistance of the naked hull on calm water and towing power (propulsion efficiency 100 %);
- Second time - in case with speed of the head wind and the transverse wind area at propulsion efficiency 50 % - for definition of the maximal size of the resistance and maximal propulsion power.
To speed of the head wind and the transverse wind area, stipulated in point 3 of the given publication, we shall add factor of air resistance which in the manual of the program varies from 0,8 up to 1,2. We accept 0,8 for passenger ships from book « Designing of sea going ships » - L.M. Nogid, 1976, page 91.
By results of calculation are created two separate pdf files which can look in the attachment.
At input of the entrance data for the width it is necessary to accept the maximal width on WL, and for the draft it is necessary to accept maximal design draft on AP equal 1,25m, as in program NavCad. In addition it is required also the draft on FP equal 1,10m that there was a full information on the trim.
In program NavCad to be entered size LCB [m] from FP, or from AP, but in program Maxsurf Resistance it is necessary to enter LCG [m] from midship (the middle of length Lpp).
Sizes for transom and bulb coincide in both programs-NavCad and Maxsurf Resistance.
In Maxsurf Resistance there is also a new size - deadrise of the bottom on 50 % LWL = 6,7 deg.
The factor of correlation for methods Van Oortmerssen and Compton is accepted under the formulation of 19th ITTC; for method Fung it has a fixed size and is equal 0,0005, and for method Holtrop-according to calculation on method Holtrop.

Continuation follows!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria

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• ###### B20-R-Resistance Results,D=54,85t, Tmax=1,25m,trim=0,15m,efficiency 50%-16042019.pdf
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### RabahSenior Member

Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project B20-R
/ continuation /

8. Comparative diagrams by the results of calculation of the power

By means of program Advanced Grapher v.2.2 three comparative diagrams /see the added files / are constructed:

- The comparative diagram for the results of the calculation of the towing power on method Holtrop;

- The comparative diagram for the results of the calculation of the towing power on other methods;

- The comparative diagram for the results of the calculation of the maximal propulsion power.

For comparison in the diagram on method Holtrop the curve of the towing capacity by results of calculation B20-R-020-030 « Calculation of the propulsion characteristics of the vessel » executed by company SeaTech, and also the curve of the towing power received as a result of the sea trials of the vessel on project B-20R, carried out by company SeaTech in June 2018 is shown.

In the diagram on other methods, for comparison, the curve of the towing power is resulted according to sea trials.

In the diagram for maximal propulsion power are shown all results on the specified methods, received with the four programs. For comparison the curve of the maximal power under the Fuel Consumption, received is shown also as a result of sea trials.

9. Conclusions

Comparing results under three diagrams it is possible to make follow conclusions:

Calculation on Method Holtrop in program Orca3D completely coincides with the data of sea trials for the maximal power under the Fuel Consumption within the limits of the test range of speeds of the given vessel.

The data on sea trials for the towing power are very close to curve of the towing power on Method Holtrop in program Orca3D.

If further the project will undergo modernizations with necessity of maintenance of speed of the vessel for 13 kts, in this case it will be necessary to increase the power of the Main Engines up to 370 kW and if the customer will want speed not less than 16 kts, it is necessary the power to be 650 kW.

In that case the much big power of the engine will result in increase in weight of the propulsion installation that it will be necessary to compensate for preservation of the current displacement and draft. But in case of essential changes, it is necessary to repeat the calculation with the new parameters. Fortunately, program Orca3D operates very quickly in hands of the one who knows as with it to work.

At the end of calculations I want to thank all which have helped me to realize them, including all who was made this project and which have carried out the manufacture of this remarkable and beautiful vessel. With special gratitude to NA Peter Ezhov for the given opportunity, also many thanks to eng. Alexander Obidin for the rendered help during calculations and for editing of the text of the publication.

Once again thank all!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria

14.05.2019

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• ###### B20-R-Comparative diagram of the calculation of the Total Propulsive Power.pdf
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### RabahSenior Member

Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project AY-15

Greetings dear readers of the forum of the "Boat Design.net",

I suggest to continue the theme of calculation of resistance and power of a small motor yachts. This time we shall consider the motor yacht of project AY-15 of the company SeaTech from Nizhni Novgorod-Russia.

The General Director of the company Sea Tech-NA Peter Ezhov, has given me a Rhino file of the model of project AY-15 for performance of calculations on resistance and power -see the attached png files from Rhino.

The purpose of the present publication is not that was in the publication about calculations of resistance under project B20-R.

Vessel it is not constructed yet - at the present is on a design stage.

The purpose of the development - to choose the most suitable method for calculation of resistance for the given hull and to define the most suitable curve of towing power for the further choice of the total rated power of the main engines.

As against project B20-R, this time we shall use only two programs:

- Maxsurf Resistance x64 v.20 from 2013

Let's carry out calculations for definition of the resistance and the towing power of the naked hull on calm water without any additives.

This time we shall not carry out calculations the transverse and longitudinal wind areas as all additives to resistance will be take into account with change of the general propulsive efficiency of the propulsion installations from 100 % on 50 % /see the Remark below/.

To obtain the entrance data for program Maxsurf Resistance, it is necessary to use model of project AY-15 executed in Rhino.

It is necessary to solve the same problem which arose in project B20-R - cut off in Rhino surfaces are perceived in Maxsurf Modeler as not cut off.

NA Alexander Andreev-Director of Design office A4 in Irkutsk/Russia/, has offered a simple way - make export / import the NURBS surfaces not through IGES file, and stl file in a text code ascii of the Trimesh surfaces.

NA A.Andreev has offered me a file without a superstructure, with a fictitious deck. But as already know from the publication about calculations of project B20-R, program Maxsurf Resistance makes calculations irrespective of presence or absence of the deck. More likely it was necessary for CFD- Analysis.

I have agreed to use model in Irkutsk variant as contours of the bottom, transom, sides and reverse chine ﬂats have remained without change.

According to company Sea Tech full displacement of the yacht in fresh water corresponds to draft in bow Tf = 0,9m and in AP Ta = 1,0m; coordinates CG Xg = 6,42m, Yg=0,00 m, Zg =1,34 m.

Operational speed - 8-9 kts, the maximal speed - 12-13kts.

Calculation of the initial stability on DWL is made three times - see attached files:

- In program Orca3D, in the existing Rhino file for half hull of the vessel, we add frames, buttocks and WL (see the enclosed file).

Displacement of the vessel without a trim makes 22,6t.

Displacement in fresh water 22,679t has receive at average draft on midship 0,957 m

- After input of the model of Irkutsk variant in program Maxsurf Modeler, and then in program Maxsurf Stability, we make two calculations - once to equal keel at draft Т = 0,957 m (as in Orca3D) and displacement 22,38 t and second time with take into account a trim at a draft in bow- 0,9 m, in AP- 1,0 m and average draft on midship-0,95 m, again receive displacement 22,38 t.

At input of the same model in program Maxsurf Resistance at a draft to equal keel T = 0,957 m full displacement has receive equal D = 22,647 t or volumetric displacement V = 22,647 m^3 at density of water of 1,0 t/m^3.

The further calculations in program Maxsurf Resistance are made on mentioned above WL to equal keel.

The methods accepted in program Maxsurf Resistance for calculation of towing resistance and necessary towing power of the naked hull of project AY-15 on calm, deep water without taking into account appendage, wind and wave.

The interval of speeds of 5-16 kts is chosen. Four are the chosen methods (i.e. on the statistical data of serial tests of models of ships in experimental pool) and one theoretical. The most suitable methods are:

1. Fung-by publication of Fung, S.C. and Leibman, L., “Revised Speed-Dependent Powering Predictions for High Speed Transom Stern Hull Forms”-1995.

2. Compton-in an interval of speeds only up to 13,8 kts, by publication of Compton, R., “Resistance of a Systematic Series of Semi-Planing Transom-Stern Hulls”

Marine Technology, v23, No.4, October 1986

3. Holtrop-under the publication of the author from 1977 and 1978 and the joint publication of authors Holtrop and Mennen - 1982 and 1984.

4. Savitsky Pre-planing - only in an interval of speeds 10,5 - 16 kts, by publication of Savitsky, D. and Brown, W., “ Procedures for Hydrodynamic Evaluation of Planing Hulls in Smooth and Rough Water ” Marine Technology, October 1976

In this publication the data from publication of Mercier, John A. andSavitsky, Daniel “Resistance of Transom Shear Craft in the Pre-Planing Range”-1973 are quoted

5. Theoretical method Slender Body - under publication Couser, P., Wellicome J.F. and Molland, A.F., “ An improved method for the theoretical prediction of the wave resistance of transom-stern hulls using a slender body approach ” International Shipbuilding Progress, vol. 45, No. 444, 1998.

Method Slender Body is applied to monohull and multihull ships in an interval of speeds from zero up to FnL ≈ 1,0. The given method is equally good both for Round bilge and for Hard chine hull.

Necessary condition: Slenderness Ratio (relative length, i.e. "lengthening") = LWL / V^1/3 ≥ 5. Good results are receive at the Ratio 5-6.

At project AY-15 at LWL = 14,779 m and V = 22,647m^3 Slenderness Ratio = 5,22> 5.

At the maximal speed of 16 kts, FnL = 0,684 <1,0.

At all the higher listed methods the efficiency of the propulsion installation it is accepted equal 1.0 (i.e. 100 %) to receive towing power.

If to accept the general propulsive efficiency = 0,5 (i.e. 50 %) then we shall receive the maximal power (PE total), necessary for overcoming maximal resistance Rtotal (the naked hull on calm water in case with a wind, wave, shallow water and appendage). I.e. multiplication on 2 (or division on 0,5) results of towing power (at efficiency = 100 %) we shall receive necessary maximal power for the choice of engines /see the Remark below/.

Example: If to look at the Diagram „Towing power - Speed”, we shall see, that the smallest sizes are received on method Holtrop in red color, and the biggest - on theoretical method Slender Body too in red color - (see attached file). If to accept the average curve for this range it will be close to the curve received on method Fung and method Savitsky Pre-Planing. We allow to shall accept higher values - on method Fung (the curve with green color). Then if it is necessary to choose the engines, capable to provide of the vessel the maximal speed of 13 kts, the maximal total power of engines should make:

PEtotal = 152,96 x 2 = 306 kW

Model of the vessel and wave formation behind the hull at movement of the vessel on calm water with speed of 9 kts it is shown in png files at the end of calculation.

Remark:

Let we shall pay attention as in program Orca3D suggest to choose power of engines. We shall look the table in a manual of the program/see attached file/. There it is specified that mean OPC and Service Margin.

OPC usually is in an interval of 50-70 %, and Service Margin - in an interval of 10-30 %.

If we accept narrower interval - OPC = 55-60 % and Service Margin=10-20 % then it agrees the table we shall receive the Ratio of Engine power to Effective power = 1,83-2,18/see the marks in red color /.

We accept average size of the Ratio = 2,0.

In program Maxsurf Resistance I have accepted efficiency = 50 %, i.e. by multiplication to 2,0 the size of Effective power to receive the Engine power.

I.e. in concept "efficiency" we include not only the maximal efficiency of the propulsion installations /OPC/, but also and the additives included in Service Margin-Appendage, Windage, Sea Wave and Shallow Water.

Continuation follows!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria

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### RabahSenior Member

Calculations of resistance of water and towrope power of a motor yacht of project AY-15
/ continuation /

The following stage of the publication concerns the calculations in program NavCad 2005. In the previous publication for calculation of resistance and towing power of project B20-R it was spoken that it is necessary to bring in the entrance data to the program NavCad 2005 manually. We shall take advantage of the data received in program Maxsurf Stability and enclosed in already familiar file for you. But this time we shall take not the data received for the vessel to equal keel as it was at calculation in Maxsurf Resistance, and the data on DWL with a trim.

What for? The answer is simple: to see the difference in final results on method Fung in program Maxsurf Resistance and on method HSTS in program NavCad 2005 because both methods are created under one publication - Fung, Leibman from 1995 for round bilge boats with transom stern.

The methods accepted in program HydroComp NavCad 2005 for calculation of resistance of water and necessary towing power of the naked hull of project AY-15 in calm, deep water without taking into account appendage, wind and wave.

The interval of speeds of 5-16 kts is chosen. After input of the initial data the program does not recommend any method with dark blue color (i.e. there are no the most suitable methods for calculation).

There are recommendations in pink color (i.e. good methods for application) for the following methods on the statistical data of serial tests of models of ships in experimental pools:

- Method Jin 1980 - on the publication Jin, P., Su, B. and Tan, Z., „A Parametric Study on High-Speed Displacement Hulls ", High-Speed Surface Craft, Sept 1980.

- Method Jin 1988 - on the publication Jin, P., et al, " Regression Re-Analysis of High-Speed Round Bilge Displacement Hull Residuary Resistance ", Ship Engineering No. 6, December 1988.

- Method De Groot HC - on the publication De Groot, D., „Resistance and Propulsion of Motor-Boats ", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1955.

- Method NTUA - on the publication Radojcic, D., Grigoropoulos, G. J., Rodic, T., Kuvelic, T., and Damala, D.P. " The Resistance and Trim of Semi-Displacement, Double-Chine, Transom-Stern Hull Series ", Proceedings FAST 2001, Southampton, 2001.

There is as “well” recommendations in black color (i.e. satisfactory methods for application). The following are chosen from them:

- Method Simple Displ/Semi-on the publication HydroComp, Inc. in-house development, 1992.

- Method CRTS - on the publication Fung, S., " Resistance and Powering Prediction for Transom Stern Hull Forms During Early Stage Ship Design ", SNAME Transactions, Vol. 99, 1991.

- Method HSTS-on the publication Fung, S.C. and Leibman, L., " Revised Speed-Dependent Powering Predictions for High-Speed Transom Stern Hull Forms ", Proceedings Third International Conference of Fast Sea Transportation (FAST ' 95), Germany, 1995.

- Method Holtrop 1984 - under the following publications:

Holtrop, J., „A Statistical Resistance Prediction Method With a Speed Dependent Form Factor ", Proceedings SMSSH ' 88, Varna, Oct 1988.

Holtrop, J., „A Statistical Re-Analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data ", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 31, No. 363 Nov 1984.

Holtrop, J. and Mennen, G.G.J., „An Approximate Power Prediction Method ", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 29, No. 335, Jul 1982.

- Method Mercier - on the publication Mercier, J.A. Savitsky, D., " Resistance of Transom Stern Craft in the Pre-Planing Regime ", Davidson Lab. Report SIT-DL-73-1667, Jun 1973.

- Method NPL - on the publication Radojcic, D, Rodic, T, and Kostic, N, „Resistance and Trim Predictions for the NPL High Speed Round Bilge Displacement Hull Series ", International Conference on Power, Performance, and Operability of Small Craft ", Southampton, September 1997

At all in the higher described methods the general propulsion efficiency equal 1.0 (i.e. 100 %) is accepted for receive the towing power.

For the choice of the method of calculation most suitable to project AY-15, we shall look at character of curves on the comparative diagram of the towing power - see the enclosed calculation. It is visible, that the most close sizes are shown on group of the curves from NPL up to De Groot HC. In this group the curve on method HSTS (Fung, Leibman) is as like average and the most authentic. On it for the maximal speed of 13 kts we shall receive the towing power PEbare = 148 kW.

But the series of the tested models on method HSTS have transom stern and a round bilge. The series on the method De Groot HC have transom stern and a hard chine.

At the project AY-15 have a hard chine with reverse chine ﬂats that is more similar to models of the series De Groot HC. On method De Groot HC for the maximal speed of 13 kts the towing power makes PEbare = 153 kW. Thus PEtotal = 153 / 0,5 or PEtotal = 2*153= 306 kW /see the Remark above/.

I apply the comparative diagram of finally accepted curves under programs NavCad 2005 and Maxsurf Resistance. In it is possible to see as far as results on method Fung in program Maxsurf Resistance and on method HSTS in program NavCad 2005 are differ. The difference in power is appreciable at speed more than 11 kts and makes at 13 kts -5 kW, and at 16 kts already 8,45 kW.

Conclusion: at identical displacement results on method HSTS in the program NavCad 2005 in case with a trim (the curve of dark blue color) it is less than results on method Fung in the program Maxsurf Resistance to equal keel (the curve of red color). Both methods are executed under one publication.

Concurrence of the curves of the towing power on method Fung in program Maxsurf Resistance and on method De Groot HC in the program NavCad 2005 by speed 13 kts is casual.

In a result I suggest to accept the choice of suitable engines for project AY-15 under the curve of towing power received on method De Groot Hard Chine in program HydroComp NavCad 2005 with the Remark above.

At the end of calculations I want to thank all which projected this vessel. Special gratitude to NA Peter Ezhov for the given opportunity, as well to eng. Alexander Obidin for the rendered help during calculations and for editing of the text of the publication. Thanks and to NA Alexander Andreev for the given Irkutsk variant of model.

Once again thank all!

Has developed: NA Razmik Baharyan

Rousse-Bulgaria, 21.05.2019

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• ###### AY-15- Resistance Calculation by NavCad-04032019.pdf
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### tapan khandelwalJunior Member

hello, I want to know about how to get the yacht offset table because I want to make lines plan for my yacht project please help me out.which class rule will provide offset table for planing crafts.

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### RabahSenior Member

Whether there is a technical task for which project have started? That could help you with advice and if it does not hinder you, I ask to describe briefly that you till now have made. Otherwise it will be impossible for me give qualitative consulting.
Yours faithfully, NA Razmik Baharyan

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### tapan khandelwalJunior Member

I want to know about the how to do rudder calculation of 189m bulkcarrier ship in excelsheet and which rules will be follow for this calculation.

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### RabahSenior Member

Calculation of the steerer is made under the relevant Rules of Classification and construction on which the vessel in section Ship devices and equipment is projected.
Yours faithfully, NA Razmik Baharyan

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### tapan khandelwalJunior Member

see this video - I want to make this excel sheet for rudder calculation. Please if you have, let me know. It doesn't matter which ship of the rudder, just send me.

thanks & regards,
Tapan Khandelwal

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### RabahSenior Member

Sorry, but your problem has no anything general with my publication.