Pure Hydrogen Fuel Supplementation

Discussion in 'Hybrid' started by Secure Supplies, Sep 6, 2014.

  1. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

  2. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

    Links to scientific research
    Combustion of a Gasoline–Hydrogen–Air Mixture in a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder and Determining the Optimum Gasoline–Hydrogen Ratio
    L. N. Bortnikov

    http://www.maik.ru/abstract/cesw/7/c...8_abstract.pdf

    Abstract: This paper reports results of an analysis of experimental data on the combustion of a gasoline–hydrogen–air mixture in a reciprocating internal combustion engine cylinder. The completeness of combustion of the mixture is shown to depend on the amount of hydrogen in the fuel mixture and the composition and physicochemical properties of the mixture. In particular, the conditions of addition of hydrogen to the gasoline–air mixture with active chemical action on the combustion process and the action of hydrogen as an additional fuel component are determined. A dimensionless universal relation is proposed that allows one to uniquely determine the initial composition of the fuel mixture (hydrogen to gasoline ratio) to accomplish combustion of the fuel mixture at the lean combustion limit.
    EMISSIONS AND TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF A MULTICYLINDER PISTON ENGINE RUNNING ON GASOLINE AND A HYDROGEN-GASOLINE MIXTURE
    John F. Cassidy

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/ca...1977016170.pdf

    Abstract: An experimental program using a multicylinder reciprocating engine was performed to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, 7. 4-liter (472-in. 3) displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was-used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. The results were used to explain the advantages of adding hydrogen to gasoline as a method of extending the lean operating range. The minimum-energy-consumption equivalence ratio was extended to leaner conditions by adding hydrogen, although the minimum energy consumption did not change. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Also, adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios. Engine performance and emissions with hydrogen from the methanol reformer were about the same as those with bottled hydrogen.
    Emissions reductions using hydrogen from plasmatron fuel converters
    L. Bromberga, D.R. Cohn, A. Rabinovich, J. Heywood

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...87495090feae9a

    Abstract: Improvements in internal combustion engine and aftertreatment technologies are needed to meet future environmental quality goals. Systems using recently developed compact plasmatron fuel converters in conjunction with state-of-the-art engines and aftertreatment catalysts could provide new opportunities for obtaining substantial emissions reductions. Plasmatron fuel converters provide a rapid response, compact means to transform a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels (including gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel) into hydrogen-rich gas. Hydrogen-rich gas can be used as an additive to provide NOx reductions of more than 80% in spark ignition gasoline engine vehicles by enabling very lean operation or heavy exhaust engine recirculation. It may also be employed for cold start hydrocarbon reduction. If certain requirements are met, it may also be possible to achieve higher spark ignition engine efficiencies (e.g., up to 95% of those of diesel engines). These requirements include the attainment of ultra lean, high compression ratio, open throttle operation using only a modest amount of hydrogen addition. For diesel engines, use of compact plasmatron reformers to produce hydrogen-rich gas for the regeneration of NOx absorber/adsorbers and particulate traps for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment could provide significant advantages. Recent tests of conversion of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich gas using a low current plasmatron fuel converter with non-equilibrium plasma features are described.
    FORMATION AND RESTRAINT OF TOXIC EMISSIONS IN HYDROGEN-GASOLINE MIXTURE FUELED ENGINES
    LI JINGDING, GUO LINSONG, and DU TIANSHEN

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...83e8f00f563a87

    Abstract: A little amount of hydrogen supplemented to the gasoline-air mixture can extend the flammability of the mixture, increase the rate of flame propagation, accelerate the burning velocity of the lean mixture, thus improving the economy and emissions of engines, and enhancing thermal efficiency.

    In this paper, the mechanism of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines is expounded on basis of the theory of chemical dynamics of combustion. And the mechanism of which toxic emissions are restrained in the course of the combustion of hydrogen-gasoline mixture is discussed. And last, the experimental investigation results of restraining toxic emissions are introduced.
    FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION OF SI ENGINE FUELED WITH H2-ENRICHED GASOLINE
    Y. Hacohen and E. Sher

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freea...&isnumber=2490

    Abstract: A study of the effect of the amount of hydrogen on the fuel consumption and emission of a spark ignition (SI) engine is reported. In the first stage, dynamometer test results for a wide range of engine speeds, engine loads, equivalence ratio, and hydrogen enrichment under steady-state operation were obtained, and the engine requirements for minimum BSFC were specified. In the second stage, an onboard, online hydrogen generator was developed and employed to provide the required amount of hydrogen. The hydrogen was produced by a steam reforming process. A detailed model for simulating a spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-enriched gasoline was developed and used to predict the optimal amount of hydrogen supplement as well as the corresponding MBT, optimal throttle position, and emissions level of CO, HC, and NOx
    Hydrogen Enhanced Combustion - History, applications and Hydrogen supply by plasma reforming
    Georgios Pechlivanoglou

    http://georgepehli.googlepages.com/H...n_3_5_2006.pdf

    Abstract: Since the early years of internal combustion engine development, many researchers have been trying to optimize the combustion process in the engines’ chambers. The utilization of hydrogen as a combustion enhancer have also been investigated during the years of the machinedominated era, but the results were dubious. Therefore Hydrogen Enhanced Combustion (HEC) is not yet being commercially used. The aim of the following document is to present the milestones of the results on the HEC research, as well as the potential applications and the present state of the art on this field. Finally the possibility of on board hydrogen production with plasma reformer is also briefly presented and investigated.
    Improving the Spark-Ignition Engine
    John B. Heywood
    Engine Research Center - 2005 Symposium
    University of Madison, Wisconsin
    June 8-9, 2005

    http://www.erc.wisc.edu/symposiums/2...eywood_MIT.pdf
    INFLUENCE OF THE ADDITION OF HYDROGEN AND OF A SYNTHESIS GAS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROCESS OF COMBUSTION OF GASOLINE–AIR MIXTURES UNDER CONDITIONS TYPICAL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    A. N. Migun, A. P. Chernukho, and S. A. Zhdanok

    http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JEPT...79..651M

    Abstract: The influence of the addition of hydrogen and of a synthesis gas on the basic parameters of combustion of gasoline-air fuel mixtures is investigated theoretically. The possibility of feeding gasoline internal combustion engines with lean fuel mixtures with a concentration of 5 10 vol.% hydrogen is shown; this will greatly improve their ecological purity.
    Performance of a spark ignition engine fuelled with reformate gas produced on-board vehicle
    Enzo Galloni, Mariagiovanna Minutillo

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...858d7c13587e66

    Abstract: In recent years, the interest in the use of hydrogen, as an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines, has grown according to energy crises and pollution problems. By comparing the properties of hydrogen and gasoline, it is possible to underline the possibilities, for hydrogen–gasoline fuelled engines, of operating with very lean mixtures, thus obtaining interesting fuel economy and emission reductions.

    In this paper, the performance of a spark-ignition engine, fuelled by hydrogen enriched gasoline, has been evaluated by using a numerical model. A multidimensional code (KIVA-3V) has been modified in order to model the engine combustion process using a hybrid combustion model adapted for dual fuelling. Based on computed results, the performance of the engine has been evaluated in different operating conditions.

    Furthermore, for the hydrogen enriched gasoline engine fuelling, the hydrogen production on-board the vehicle has been considered. A thermochemical model of a reforming system has been developed by means of the Aspen Plus code. The conversion of gasoline to hydrogen has been investigated and thermodynamic analysis of the reforming system has been conducted.

    The thermal efficiency of the fuel processor and the efficiency of the integrated reformer/SI engine system have been calculated.
    Performance study of a four-stroke spark ignition engine working with both of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol as supplementary fuel
    Maher Abdul-Resul, Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...aac5c063bd778a

    Abstract: The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission with increase in the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. The addition of 8 mass% of hydrogen, with 30 vol% of ethyl alcohol into a gasoline engine operating at 9 compression ratio and 1500 rpm causes a 48.5% reduction in CO emission, 31.1% reduction in NOx emission and 58.5% reduction in specific fuel consumption. Moreover, the engine thermal efficiency and output power increased by 10.1 and 4.72%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both, the break power and efficiency.
    The addition of hydrogen to a gasoline-fuelled SI engine
    T. D’Andreaa, P.F. Henshawa, D.S.-K. Ting

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...0073be5ec4f6f8

    Abstract: The results of an experimental investigation involving the addition of hydrogen to a gasoline-fuelled SI engine are reported. Up to 66% by volume (3.7% by mass) of hydrogen as fuel was added as part of the air with little modification to the engine. Cylinder pressure traces were used to calculate the indicated mean effective pressure and mass fraction burned. Electrochemical analysers were used to measure the concentration of CO, NO and O2 in the exhaust. The added hydrogen resulted in improved work output and a reduction in burn duration and cycle-to-cycle variation while operating under lean conditions (φ<0.85). When operating closer to stoichiometric conditions (φ>0.85) little difference in engine performance was seen. This dependence of hydrogen addition effect on the fuel/air equivalence ratio was confirmed by analysis of variance tests.
    Thermal balance of a four stroke SI engine operating on hydrogen as a supplementary fuel
    F. Yuksel, M.A. Ceviz

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...c1cc25363cf7f6

    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of adding constant quantity hydrogen to gasoline–air mixture on SI engine thermal balance and performance. A four stroke, four-cylinder SI engine was used for conducting this study.

    Thermal balance tests were conducted for engine thermal efficiency, heat loss through the exhaust gases, heat loss to the cooling water and unaccounted losses (i.e. heat lost by lubricating oil, radiation), while performance tests were in respect to the brake power, specific fuel consumption and air ratio. Hydrogen supplementations were used with three different and fixed mass flow rates; 0.129, 0.168 and 0.208 kg h−1 at near three-fourth throttle opening position and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4500 rpm. The results showed that supplementation of hydrogen to gasoline decreases the heat loss to cooling water and unaccounted losses, and the heat loss through the exhaust gas is nearly the same with pure gasoline experiments. Additionally, specific fuel consumption decreases, while the engine thermal efficiency and the air ratio increase. Engine performance parameters such as thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption improved the level of the ratio of hydrogen mass flow rate to that of gasoline up to 5%.


    Read more: http://www.physicsforums.com
     
  3. Secure Supplies
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    Why Bother?

    Because there are more engines than people and those engines put out poison gas
    and run 24 hrs

    they are poisoning you .
     
  4. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

    When expressed as a percentage,
    the thermal efficiency must be between 0% and 100%.
    Efficiency is typically less than 100% because there are inefficiencies such as friction and heat loss that convert the energy into alternative forms.
    For example, a typical gasoline automobile engine operates at around 25% efficiency,
    and a large coal-fueled electrical generating plant peaks at about 46%.
    The largest diesel engine in the world peaks at 51.7%. In a combined cycle plant, thermal efficiencies are approaching 60%.[2] Such a real-world value may be used as a figure of merit for the device.
    For engines where a fuel is burned there are two types of thermal efficiency: indicated thermal efficiency and brake thermal efficiency.[3] This efficiency is only appropriate when comparing similar types or similar devices.
    For other systems the specifics of the calculations of efficiency vary but the non dimensional input is still the same.
    Efficiency = Output energy / input energy
     
  5. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

    That is crystal clear folks 30-40% is thermally inefficiency UN BURNT FUEL

    Goes directly out of your pocket into the Air.
     
  6. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

    A fuel with a higher octane rating is less prone to auto-ignition and can withstand a greater rise in temperature during the compression stroke of an internal combustion engine without auto-igniting,

    thus allowing more power to be extracted from the Otto-Cycle. VERY Correct!! Diesel and Rotary are more ideally suited due to the higher compression spec.

    Hydrogen octane rating is < 130

    MOre Power More Efficient Combustion.

    allowing lean out of other fuels if mixed in a meter mixed controlled tunable fashion as PUre HYDROGEN. with or with out the tuning feed of oxygen.
     
  7. WestVanHan
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    WestVanHan Not a Senior Member

  8. Secure Supplies
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    Do you remember the 10 mb hard disk ?

    or perhaps the amazing 100 mb hard disk that replaced it

    or maybe the news cast that advised of the very expensive nasa
    1 giga bit drive size of car.

    Simply Tech evolving

    What do not want to do though is get stuck the 80's with those 10 mb drives.

    and have the flash memory hidden from you.
     
  9. gonzo
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    gonzo Senior Member

    This is a really large compilation of long posts with bogus claims. There are conspiracy theory sites that would love to have it.
     
  10. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

  11. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

  12. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

  13. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

    Sgs of these

    sgs of these
     

    Attached Files:

  14. AndySGray
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    AndySGray Senior Member

    In the last century, Gentlemen of the Southerly states had a tradition of good manners and gentility.

    Occasionally they would encounter individuals making wildly exaggerated and unsubstantiated claims for a product. :eek:

    While the normal reaction would be to attribute this mendacity to moral deficiency or flawed character, these wise and moderate individuals realised that a thorough and complete education was not available to all and that perhaps such brazen comments stemmed instead from an incomplete scholastic foundation.

    Of course to say such a thing would be considered impolite.;)

    At the time, a classical education was held in the highest regard, so was the obvious source with which to re-acquaint the errant individual with the joys of learning.

    Greek mythology and the tale of Icarus seems to have been at the start of the curriculum.

    Regrettably, the South's long tradition of candlelit suppers often left wax in perilously short supply and when it came to the practical part of the lesson where they would demonstrate the construction of Icarus's wings it would seem Tar was often the only available substitute.:(

    The lack of authentic materials did not seem to matter too much as it was widely noted that once they had completed their introductory lesson, those wayward individuals became highly motivated and clearly learned much from it. :D
     

  15. Secure Supplies
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    Secure Supplies Junior Member

    so that is 100% running

    10% supplementation is to boost your performance is easy

    from Split gas pure hydrogen cells
     
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