Ocean News

Discussion in 'All Things Boats & Boating' started by ImaginaryNumber, Oct 8, 2015.

  1. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

  2. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Greenland, Antarctica Melting Six Times Faster Than in the 1990s

    Observations from 11 satellite missions monitoring the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have revealed that the regions are losing ice six times faster than they were in the 1990s. If the current melting trend continues, the regions will be on track to match the "worst-case" scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of an extra 6.7 inches (17 centimeters) of sea level rise by 2100......

    The resulting meltwater boosted global sea levels by 0.7 inches (17.8 millimeters). Together, the melting polar ice sheets are responsible for a third of all sea level rise. Of this total sea level rise, 60% resulted from Greenland's ice loss and 40% resulted from Antarctica's.......

    The IPCC in its Fifth Assessment Report issued in 2014 predicted global sea levels would rise 28 inches (71 centimeters) by 2100. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Intercomparison Exercise team's studies show that ice loss from Antarctica and Greenland tracks with the IPCC's worst-case scenario........
     
  3. ImaginaryNumber
    Joined: May 2009
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

  4. ImaginaryNumber
    Joined: May 2009
    Posts: 424
    Likes: 48, Points: 28, Legacy Rep: 399
    Location: USA

    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

  5. ImaginaryNumber
    Joined: May 2009
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

  6. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    A Security Threat Assessment of Global Climate Change

    ......The panel, made up of national security, military and intelligence experts, analyzed the globe through the lens of the U.S. Geographic Combatant Commands, and concluded that:

    “Even at scenarios of low warming, each region of the world will face severe risks to national and global security in the next three decades. Higher levels of warming will pose catastrophic, and likely irreversible, global security risks over the course of the 21st century.”.......

    Key recommendations
    1. Mitigating these risks requires quickly reducing and phasing out global greenhouse gas emissions. We call for the world to achieve net-zero global emissions as soon as possible in a manner that is ambitious, safe, equitable, and well-governed, in order to avoid severe and catastrophic security futures.
    2. The world must also “climate-proof” environments, infrastructure, institutions, and systems on which human security depends, and so we call for rapidly building resilience to current and expected impacts of climate change. With future-oriented investments in adaptation, disaster response, and peacebuilding
    3. In the United States, we call for renewed efforts to prioritize, communicate, and respond to climate security threats, and to integrate these considerations across all security planning.



     
  7. ImaginaryNumber
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  8. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    A climate change double whammy in the US Corn Belt

    The United States Corn Belt includes western Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, eastern Nebraska, and eastern Kansas. The region has dominated corn production in the U.S. since the 1850s, accounting for more than a third of the global supply of corn. It is also the world's largest source of soybeans. New research led by atmospheric scientist Mingfang Ting from Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory reveals that climate change has triggered two changes that threaten the region's crop production; warming temperatures are both increasing the evaporation of soil moisture and causing summer storms to carry more moisture away from the Midwest. Ting's study, which she presented last week at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union, forecasts a progressive worsening of this one-two punch over the next decade......
     
  9. ImaginaryNumber
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    The projected timing of abrupt ecological disruption from climate change

    ....We project that future disruption of ecological assemblages as a result of climate change will be abrupt, because within any given ecological assemblage the exposure of most species to climate conditions beyond their realized niche limits occurs almost simultaneously. Under a high-emissions scenario (representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5), such abrupt exposure events begin before 2030 in tropical oceans and spread to tropical forests and higher latitudes by 2050. If global warming is kept below 2 °C, less than 2% of assemblages globally are projected to undergo abrupt exposure events of more than 20% of their constituent species; however, the risk accelerates with the magnitude of warming, threatening 15% of assemblages at 4 °C, with similar levels of risk in protected and unprotected areas. These results highlight the impending risk of sudden and severe biodiversity losses from climate change and provide a framework for predicting both when and where these events may occur....

    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    see also: Climate change could cause sudden biodiversity losses worldwide
     
  10. ImaginaryNumber
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    Stanford researcher reveals influence of global warming on extreme weather events has been frequently underestimated

    A new Stanford study reveals that a common scientific approach of predicting the likelihood of future extreme weather events by analyzing how frequently they occurred in the past can lead to significant underestimates – with potentially significant consequences for people’s lives.

    Stanford climate scientist Noah Diffenbaugh found that predictions that relied only on historical observations underestimated by about half the actual number of extremely hot days in Europe and East Asia, and the number of extremely wet days in the U.S., Europe and East Asia....
     
  11. ImaginaryNumber
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  12. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Changes to drylands with future climate change

    While drylands around the world will expand at an accelerated rate because of future climate change, their average productivity will likely be reduced, according to a new study. These regions, which primarily include savannas, grasslands and shrublands, are important for grazing and non-irrigated croplands. They are also a critical part of the global carbon cycle and make up 41% of Earth's land surface and support 38% of its population.
     
  13. ImaginaryNumber
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    The Limits of Clean Energy

    If the world isn’t careful, renewable energy could become as destructive as fossil fuels.

    ....In 2017, the World Bank released a little-noticed report that offered the first comprehensive look at this question. It models the increase in material extraction that would be required to build enough solar and wind utilities to produce an annual output of about 7 terawatts of electricity by 2050. That’s enough to power roughly half of the global economy.....

    For neodymium—an essential element in wind turbines—extraction will need to rise by nearly 35 percent over current levels....

    Silver extraction will go up 38 percent and perhaps as much as 105 percent.

    Demand for indium, also essential to solar technology, will more than triple and could end up skyrocketing by 920 percent....

    for battery production, 40 million tons of lithium—an eye-watering 2,700 percent increase over current levels of extraction....

    for electric car production:
    Global annual extraction of neodymium and dysprosium will go up by another 70 percent,
    annual extraction of copper will need to more than double,
    cobalt will need to increase by a factor of almost four—all for the entire period from now to 2050.
     
  14. ImaginaryNumber
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    A crash course on climate change, 50 years after the first Earth Day

    The science is clear: The world is warming dangerously, humans are the cause of it, and a failure to act today will deeply affect the future of the Earth.

    This is a seven-day New York Times crash course on climate change, in which reporters from the Times’s Climate desk address the big questions:

    1.How bad is climate change now?
    2.How do scientists know what they know?
    3.Who is influencing key decisions?
    4.How do we stop fossil fuel emissions?
    5.Do environmental rules matter?
    6.Can insurance protect us?
    7.Is what I do important?
     

  15. ImaginaryNumber
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    Meteorologists say 2020 on course to be hottest year since records began

    This year is on course to be the world’s hottest since measurements began, according to meteorologists, who estimate there is a 50% to 75% chance that 2020 will break the record set four years ago.

    Heat records have been broken from the Antarctic to Greenland since January, which has surprised many scientists because this is not an El Niño year, the phenomenon usually associated with high temperatures.
     
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