Ocean News

Discussion in 'All Things Boats & Boating' started by ImaginaryNumber, Oct 8, 2015.

  1. Sparky568
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  2. ImaginaryNumber
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    Simulations show thousands of lakes in Himalaya Mountains at risk of flooding due to global warming

    As climate change continues and glaciers melt, natural lakes form when one of their borders is a natural levee called a moraine. These barriers are made of loose rock and dirt held together by ice. If the ice melts, the moraine gives way, resulting in what the researchers describe as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), several of which have already occurred in recent decades.......

    After running the simulations, they report that they found approximately 5,000 lakes in the Himalayas are likely unstable due to moraine weaknesses. They also noted that those lakes with the highest risk of a GLOF were the ones with the largest volume of water......
     
  3. ImaginaryNumber
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  4. ImaginaryNumber
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    Double-checking the science: Ocean acidification does not impair the behavior of coral reef fishes

    Over the last decade, several high-profile scientific studies have reported that tropical fish living in coral reefs are adversely affected by ocean acidification caused by climate change—that is, they behave oddly and are attracted to predators as levels of carbon dioxide dissolved from air pollution increase.......

    But when they tried to re-do those earlier studies with many of the same species, and by crunching the data in a new analysis, Clark and his team of Canadian and Scandinavian scientists—including UdeM biologists Sandra Binning and Dominique Roche—arrived at very different results......

    But "by using rigorous methods, measuring multiple behaviours in multiple species, and making our data and analysis code openly available, we have comprehensively and transparently shown that ... ocean acidification has negligible direct impacts on the behaviour of fish on coral reefs," said Clark.......
     
  5. ImaginaryNumber
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    BlackRock Sends Huge Warning Shot at Companies Ignoring Climate Risk

    The world’s largest asset manager predicts a “fundamental reshaping of finance” as the climate threat comes into sharper focus.......

    BlackRock CEO Larry Fink said in an open letter that his company will end support for thermal coal, screen fossil fuel investments more closely, and redesign its own investment approach to put sustainability at its core. As part of the shift, BlackRock will exit investments it decides have a high-sustainability-related risk........

    Further, Fink wrote, “because capital markets pull future risk forward, we will see changes in capital allocation more quickly than we see changes to the climate itself. In the near future — and sooner than most anticipate — there will be a significant reallocation of capital.”.......
     
  6. ImaginaryNumber
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    Meteorite impact 2 billion years ago may have ended an ice age

    The Australian crater Yarrabubba, at about 2.23 billion years old, is the oldest known on Earth, according to new measurements, and it might be linked to the end of a “Snowball Earth” ice age.....

    The meteorite impact that created Yarrabubba would have slammed into our planet at the end of one of our “Snowball Earth” ice ages, the researchers say, and it’s possible that the impact heated up our planet and ended that icy episode in Earth’s history....

    They found that the crash would have instantaneously vaporized huge amounts of ice, potentially releasing as much water vapor as about 2 percent of what's currently in Earth’s atmosphere. Despite water being necessary for life, water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas, so it’s possible that injecting so much extra water vapor into the atmosphere could have helped warm the planet and brought about the end of the “Snowball Earth” period that occurred roughly 2.2 billion years ago.....
     
  7. ImaginaryNumber
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    Ozone-depleting gases might have driven extreme Arctic warming

    The Arctic is warming at more than twice the average rate of the rest of the globe — a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification. Gases that deplete the ozone layer could be responsible for up to half of the effects of climate change observed in the Arctic from 1955 to 2005.

    The finding could help to explain the disproportionate toll of climate change on the region, which has long puzzled scientists......

    Global CFC concentrations have been on the decline since the turn of the millennium, following the 1989 adoption of the Montreal Protocol, which called for a phase-out of the substances. Although many other factors contribute to Arctic amplification, the result suggests that Arctic warming and sea-ice melt might be tempered in the future as ozone-depleting substances continue to leave the atmosphere, Bitz says. “It’s a very important paper because it has a little shred of optimism.”
     
  8. ImaginaryNumber
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    As our oceans become more acidic they may corrode the skins of sharks


    Climate change will make the oceans more acidic and could damage sharks’ skin. Increased acidity corrodes the sharks’ denticles – microscopic tooth-like scales that cover their skin – which may impair their swimming......

    Shark teeth are made of the same material as their denticles, so this corrosion could also impair the shark’s feeding. Because denticles are found on all sharks, other species will probably be affected......
     
  9. ImaginaryNumber
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    How the ocean is gnawing away at glaciers

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is melting faster today than it did only a few years ago. The reason: it's not just melting on the surface—but underwater, too.......

    For the purposes of the study, the researchers conducted the first extensive ship-based survey of the ocean floor near the glacier, which revealed the presence of a two-kilometre-wide trough, from the bottom of which comparatively warm water from the Atlantic is channelled directly toward the glacier. But that's not all: in the course of a detailed analysis of the trough, Janin Schaffer spotted a bathymetric sill, a barrier that the water flowing over the seafloor has to overcome. Once over the hump, the water rushes down the back of the sill—and under the ice tongue. Thanks to this acceleration of the warm water mass, large amounts of heat from the ocean flow past the tongue every second, melting it from beneath. To make matters worse, the layer of warm water that flows toward the glacier has grown larger: measured from the seafloor, it now extends 15 metres higher than it did just a few years ago......

    In order to determine whether the phenomenon only manifests at the 79° North Glacier or also at other sites, the team investigated a neighbouring region on Greenland's eastern coast......"The readings indicate that here, too, a bathymetric sill near the seafloor accelerates warm water toward the glacier. Apparently, the intensive melting on the underside of the ice at several sites throughout Greenland is largely produced by the form of the seafloor."......
     
  10. ImaginaryNumber
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    Where America's Climate Migrants Will Go As Sea Level Rises

    13 million U.S. coastal residents are expected to be displaced by 2100 due to sea level rise. Researchers are starting to predict where they’ll go.

    [​IMG]
    Blue indicates counties where flooding will displace residents if sea levels rise by six feet by 2100. Counties in shades of pink and red will see higher-than-average migration, with the darker shades representing larger population increases. (PLOS One)
     
  11. ImaginaryNumber
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  12. ImaginaryNumber
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    We've Vastly Underestimated How Much Methane Humans Are Spewing Into The Atmosphere

    Tiny bubbles of ancient air trapped in ice cores from Greenland suggest we've been seriously overestimating the natural cycle of methane, while vastly undervaluing our own terrible impact.......

    Until about 1870, the findings suggest very low levels of methane were emitted into the atmosphere and almost all of it was biological in nature. Only after this date was there a sharp increase in methane, coinciding with an increase in fossil fuel use......

    In practice this means that each year, the scientific community has been underestimating methane emissions from humans by as little as 25 percent and as high as 40 percent......
     

  13. ImaginaryNumber
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    Warming, acidic oceans may nearly eliminate coral reef habitats by 2100

    Scientists project 70 to 90 percent of coral reefs will disappear over the next 20 years as a result of climate change and pollution. Some groups are attempting to curb this decline by transplanting live corals grown in a lab to dying reefs. They propose new, young corals will boost the reef's recovery and bring it back to a healthy state.

    But new research mapping where such restoration efforts would be most successful over the coming decades finds that by 2100, few to zero suitable coral habitats will remain. The preliminary findings suggest sea surface temperature and acidity are the most important factors in determining if a site is suitable for restoration.
     
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