Is the ocean broken?

Discussion in 'All Things Boats & Boating' started by daiquiri, Oct 24, 2013.

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  1. hoytedow
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  2. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    Another Record: Ocean Warming Continues through 2021 despite La Niña Conditions

    Abstract

    The increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities traps heat within the climate system and increases ocean heat content (OHC). Here, we provide the first analysis of recent OHC changes through 2021 from two international groups. The world ocean, in 2021, was the hottest ever recorded by humans, and the 2021 annual OHC value is even higher than last year’s record value by 14 ± 11 ZJ (1 zetta J = 1021 J) using the IAP/CAS dataset and by 16 ± 10 ZJ using NCEI/NOAA dataset. The long-term ocean warming is larger in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans than in other regions and is mainly attributed, via climate model simulations, to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. The year-to-year variation of OHC is primarily tied to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the seven maritime domains of the Indian, Tropical Atlantic, North Atlantic, Northwest Pacific, North Pacific, Southern oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea, robust warming is observed but with distinct inter-annual to decadal variability. Four out of seven domains showed record-high heat content in 2021. The anomalous global and regional ocean warming established in this study should be incorporated into climate risk assessments, adaptation, and mitigation.
     
  3. hoytedow
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    Climate change is not man-made.
     
  4. hoytedow
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  5. ImaginaryNumber
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    ImaginaryNumber Imaginary Member

    2021 was world’s 6th-warmest year on record | NOAA
    According to an analysis by scientists at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), 2021 ranked sixth on the list of warmest years on record, dating back to 1880.

    Earth’s average land and ocean surface temperature in 2021 was 1.51 degrees F (0.84 of a degree C) above the 20th-century average.

    It also marked the 45th consecutive year (since 1977) with global temperatures rising above the 20th-century average. The years 2013-2021 all rank among the ten-warmest years on record.

    The Northern Hemisphere’s land and ocean surface temperature was also sixth highest on record, at 1.96 degrees F (1.09 degrees C) above average. Looking at the Northern Hemisphere’s land areas only, the temperature was third warmest on record, behind 2016 (second warmest) and 2020 (the warmest).

    Ocean heat content (OHC), which describes the amount of heat stored in the upper-levels of the ocean, was record high in 2021, surpassing the previous record high set in 2020. The seven highest OHCs have occurred in the last seven years (2015-2021). High ocean-heat content can contribute to sea-level rise.​

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    2021 Tied for 6th Warmest Year in Continued Trend, NASA Analysis Shows
    Earth’s global average surface temperature in 2021 tied with 2018 as the sixth warmest on record, according to independent analyses done by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

    Continuing the planet’s long-term warming trend, global temperatures in 2021 were 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit (0.85 degrees Celsius) above the average for NASA’s baseline period, according to scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York. NASA uses the period from 1951-1980 as a baseline to see how global temperature changes over time.

    Collectively, the past eight years are the warmest years since modern recordkeeping began in 1880. This annual temperature data makes up the global temperature record – which tells scientists the planet is warming.

    According to NASA’s temperature record, Earth in 2021 was about 1.9 degrees Fahrenheit (or about 1.1 degrees Celsius) warmer than the late 19th century average, the start of the industrial revolution.​

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    Global Temperature Report for 2021 | Berkeley Earth
    We conclude that 2021 was nominally the sixth warmest year on Earth since 1850. Our estimate of the global mean temperature in 2021 was significantly colder than 2020, but similar to 2018 and 2015. Given the uncertainties associated with temperature measurements, all three of these years 2015, 2018, and 2021 are essentially tied as the fifth, sixth, and seventh warmest years.

    The last seven years have included all seven of the warmest years observed in the instrumental record.

    Year-to-year rankings are likely to reflect short-term natural variability. In 2021, a persistent La Niña event is believed to have reduced temperatures somewhat compared to years without a La Niña event. Overall, the long-term trend remains consistent with an ongoing pattern of global warming.

    While not a record warm year overall, 8.3% of the Earth’s surface did have a record warm annual average locally in 2021. By chance, these areas coincided with a number of major population centers. We estimate that ~1.8 billion people experienced a record high annual average in 2021, including most of the population of China.​
     
  6. hoytedow
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    Tonga region..
     
  7. Flotation
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    Flotation Junior Member

    If you are worried about the effects of volcanoes on climate change you should be even more worried by this:

    "According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the world’s volcanoes, both on land and undersea, generate about 200 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually, while our automotive and industrial activities cause some 24 billion tons of CO2 (120 times as much) emissions every year worldwide. Despite the arguments to the contrary, the facts speak for themselves: Greenhouse gas emissions from volcanoes comprise less than one percent of those generated by today’s human endeavors."

    Are Volcanoes or Humans Harder on the Atmosphere? https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earthtalks-volcanoes-or-humans/
     
  8. hoytedow
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    I'm not. Stay warm.
     
    Last edited: Jan 16, 2022
  9. Flotation
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    Flotation Junior Member

    You wrote:

    Followed by two posts about volcanoes erupting. If i misunderstood you were trying to tell us volcanoes instead of humans are the main cause of climate change can you please tell us what those volcano posts were about?
     
  10. hoytedow
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    No. I said no such thing.
     
  11. hoytedow
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  12. Flotation
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    Flotation Junior Member

    How does climate change affect coral reefs? https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/coralreef-climate.html

    Climate change is the greatest global threat to coral reef ecosystems. Scientific evidence now clearly indicates that the Earth's atmosphere and ocean are warming, and that these changes are primarily due to greenhouse gases derived from human activities.


    As temperatures rise, mass coral bleaching events and infectious disease outbreaks are becoming more frequent. Additionally, carbon dioxide absorbed into the ocean from the atmosphere has already begun to reduce calcification rates in reef-building and reef-associated organisms by altering seawater chemistry through decreases in pH. This process is called ocean acidification.
     
  13. hoytedow
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    hoytedow Carbon Based Life Form

    Climate change happens. Man does not cause it or volcanoes. Both are caused by elements far beyond our control.
     
  14. Flotation
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    Flotation Junior Member

    [​IMG] Earth Atmosphere https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/atmosphere.html

    "The Earth's atmosphere is an extremely thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. The Earth is a sphere with a roughly 8000 mile diameter; the thickness of the atmosphere is about 60 miles. In this picture, taken from a spacecraft orbiting at 200 miles above the surface, we can see the atmosphere as the thin blue band between the surface and the blackness of space. If the Earth were the size of a basketball, the thickness of the atmosphere could be modeled by a thin sheet of plastic wrapped around the ball."

    Of those 60 miles only the first 6 are dense enough for humans to breathe reasonably comfortable. Do you really believe human activity cannot disturb the balance in this thin layer?
     

  15. hoytedow
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    hoytedow Carbon Based Life Form

    A disturbance is weather, not climate. Learn the difference.
     
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