Costa Concordia, 80 deg list, really scary !!

Discussion in 'Stability' started by smartbight, Jan 15, 2012.

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  1. Hawkboat
    Joined: Jan 2012
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    Hawkboat Junior Member

    :confused:
    Why do you ask? Is there some grammatical error you wish to point out?
     
  2. nettersheim
    Joined: Sep 2010
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    nettersheim Consultant

    I have tried to extract from EU Goalds Damage Stability Research site the attached info which is related to a cruise vessel a little bit bigger than "Costa Concordia". Subdivision in way of the 4 first decks is displayed.

    Francois-Xavier Nettersheim
     

    Attached Files:

  3. IEWinkle
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    IEWinkle Retired Naval Architect

    22 compartments at and average of 13.7 m long is significantly greater than the Concordia as far as we can gather. However, interesting that only two compartments extend full breadth without wing tanks and they appear to be the main machinery spaces as in the Concordia.

    The arrangement of the crew accommodation of the Concordia in the two decks under the main passenger spaces is interesting in that they appear to offer the equivalent of potentially watertight upper wing tanks if all the watertight doors accessing them were firmly closed. It may have been this configuration which kept the vessel afloat until it grounded.
     
  4. Gian Milan

    Gian Milan Previous Member

    :Dvorrei poterti rispondere io...ma non credo di essere il più qualificato!: D
     
  5. Gian Milan

    Gian Milan Previous Member

    The stability is one aggravating the risk, both in case of very strong wind that in case of collision with consequent boarding of water.
    If desired, this risk would be acceptable provided to limit the danger.
    The only way is to build the hull and topsides with thick, double hull watertight chambers and appropriate to ensure that in case of collision ........ etc etc


    The Downside risk as the probability of reaching the potential level of damage in terms of use or exposure to a particular factor or agent, or their combinations, and comes when we have simultaneously a danger and an exposed subject. The Downside risk can be expressed the following formula:
    Downside Risk = Hazard x Magnitude.
    The Downside risk then is given by the product of the hazard, or the likelihood that an event will occur in a given space and time and magnitude, ie the severity of the harmful consequences.
     
  6. smartbight
    Joined: Dec 2006
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    smartbight Naval Architect

    Freeship/Delftship Artist volunteer needed to refine model.

    To get better results we'll need Freeship/Delftship artists on the forum who can volunteer a couple of weekends to refine the bow & stern on the preliminary lines shown. NA students can apply ! See details at:
    http://www.boatdesign.net/forums/boat-design/simulating-costa-concordia-41365-4.html
     
  7. SheetWise
    Joined: Jul 2004
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    SheetWise All Beach -- No Water.

    No. It's some unique punctuation, and hidden diacritics I'm trying to learn more about it for a case I'm working -- and it seems only to appear when the authors first language is French. Nothing personal about your language, it's fine. Should have sent PM, it's totally unrelated to the thread but caught my attention.
     
  8. Angélique
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    Angélique aka Angel (only by name)

    French is an official language in Canada and the only official language in Québec . . . . :)

    Cheers,
    Angel

    P.S. - Oops, thread drift, suggest a last word for Hawkboat about this and stop it there . . . . ? ?
     
  9. Hawkboat
    Joined: Jan 2012
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    Hawkboat Junior Member

    Not even sure what a diacritic is, guess I need to do some research.

    English is 1st language, but the Newfoundland dialect which is supposedly similar to 1600's English in ways (other Canadians frequently question if it is really English at all). I've also learned quite a bit of French, and now some Norwegian. I try to use proper grammar but try to temper it with modern slang at times. Internet posts are usually typed quickly and often at the end of a day. Add all that up and it can make for some unusual sentence structure I guess.
     
  10. hoytedow
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    hoytedow Wood Butcher

    Don't sweat it. The more Spanish I learn, the more changes I notice in the way phrases I say in English change in subtle and sometimes not so subtle ways. I have to pay more attention to not make my sentences come out in a way funny.

    I suspect the CC disaster will bring a lot of modifications to ships currently on the drawing boards and will heighten the demand and interest for those setting their career on NA course.


    Excuser l'interruption, s'il vous plaît.

    Unnskyld avbrytelsen, vennligst.
     
  11. Heiwa
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    Heiwa Naval architect

    This is a very interesting thread. IMPO there were two incidents.
    The first one was an alleged contact on January 13, around 21.42 hrs, that ripped open/pushed in the ship's hull side above bilge, whereby a 100 tons boulder was loaded on the inner bottom. A number of watertight compartments were upflooded, buoyancy was lost, draught and stern trim increased but the ship remained upright with no heel S or P, i.e. was stable. Evidently intact stability was reduced but in the damaged condition GM>0 and GZ>0 for a certain range of heel. 3 200 passengers were wining/dining in the restaurants or drinking in the bars and atmosphere was full of alchol vapours. It was a happy cruise.
    In spite of this crew could evacuate 99% of persons aboard using the LSA.
    The second incident is the capsize on January 14 early am (when only a few persons remained aboard), when the ship heeled to 90° starboard and came to rest on the shore close by floating with port side as a horizontal floor. The capsize is due to GZ<0 and I wonder how it came about. I assume the ship was fitted with watertight doors that were not closed enabling progressive flooding of undamaged, watertight compartments and more buoyancy/stability lost. With 90° heel and superstructure and deckhouse below water, the superstructure and deckhouse evidently filled with water and down flooding of intact watertight compartment took place and the ship finally sank on the sea floor with 35% above water. Angle of list was reduced to 45°.
    As the ship never sank completely, maybe the best would have been to remain aboard until early morning and take a ferry ashore? :)
    IMPO the ship owner is guilty of lack of diligence and the insurance is not valid. Further observations at http://heiwaco.tripod.com/news8.htm . You will find links to drawings/damage stability calculations of two completely unsafe luxury cruise liner designs there, which explain why ships apparently (?) built to SOLAS will sink like stones or capsize like drunken sailors. It seems various maritime authorities/classification societies do not know what the SOLAS rules actually say?
     
  12. IEWinkle
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    IEWinkle Retired Naval Architect

    There was clearly an angle of heel in the first stage of this incident from both passenger and video evidence, but not more than about 15 degrees. This may well have been to port initially because of the heavy rock on that side. However, with 5 compartments flooded (Engineer's testimony) it seems that some stability may have been lost before the vessel finally grounded causing the build up of 'loll' which flipped from port to starboard as the ship grounded. From that point onwards additional holes were punched in her starboard side (see diver photos) and flooding continued which resulted in the final capsize onto its side. The 1% loss of life was largely the result of unnecessarily delayed evacuation.
     
  13. Heiwa
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    Heiwa Naval architect

    Videos of passengers with life vests in corridors indicate no heel P or S after first contact incident and succesful evacuation. So only buoyancy of certain watertight compartments were symetrically lost but vessel continued to float using the reserve buoyancy of the hull above intact compartments fwd/aft. Stability was probably reduced but vessel was upright = GM>0, GZ>0 for a certain range = no loll or anything like it.
    That vessel drifted on the shore at <0.5 knots and holed itself somewhere causing the second incident, the capsize, is unlikely.
     
  14. IEWinkle
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    IEWinkle Retired Naval Architect

    Whilst we could argue over the presence or abscece of 'loll' in the first phase of the incident - both of which could be possible for vessels of this type. It is surprising that the vessel survived for over and hour with up to 5 compartment flooding when it is not likely to be more than a 3 compartment vessel. Is the explanation to be found in the two crew accommodation decks under the bulkhead deck port and starboard over most of her length? As these would not have been breached by the original raking damage, they should have formed effective lifebelts around the vessel keeping her afloat and reasonably stable. However, the testimony of the English dancers who swam off the aft starboard end of the vessel after grounding was that the starboard side above this lifebelt was already flooding, probably from an opening at the after starboard end of the the lower passenger deck (the bulkhead deck) - the after mooring deck, already underwater through heel and trim shortly after grounding - see photo in section 5 of your Heiwa web page of the incident. If there was no concerted effort to close open watertight doors (down to and within these spaces) it would not be surprising that the vessel capsized.
     

  15. Heiwa
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    Heiwa Naval architect

    One question is: Why did the Costa Concordia, after surviving first contact incident, lose more buoyancy and trim more on stern?
    Grounding aft? No, the grounding took place (if it took place?) 1 hr after first incident and, due vessel's shape, bottom of compartments aft (above props) will not touch bottom. I think any contact vessel/shore was midship.
    Open watertight door's between engine rooms/store rooms aft causing progressive flooding? I think yes!
    Many big, diesel electric, luxury cruise liners built after 2000 have really stupidly arranged sterns with store rooms in three compartments on two decks connected by watertight doors (not as per SOLAS!) ... and also allowing entry inte the engine room (for spare parts, maintenance, etc.?).
    Actually the whole hull fwd engine rooms is also stupidly arranged with crew cabins on two decks in 8-10 watertight compartments with doors in every bulkhead. Such ships are not SOLAS and unseaworthy at any instance.
     
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