If you have a Google account I think I am right in saying that all your movements while you have your phone with you, assuming that it is at least occasionally switched on, are recorded by Google and you can get access to that information by logging onto your Google account. You can turn off this feature but I think I am correct to say that its turned on by default, many people may not realise that.
I guess there will be android apps that will do what you want, indeed I have a running oriented app that does it, but a marine oriented app may well be better for you if you can find one. Being keen on running I have tried a few of the apps that monitor running performance but I found that most of them were overloaded with features I dont want. A simple free running app that I do use is called Running Distance Tracker from a company Fitness22 Ltd. Although intended for runners, if you cant find anything better that should work to make a history of your sailing passages. It gives you a speed/distance readout and records your track which you can then view superimposed on google maps. But make sure you download the basic distance tracker, not one of the many other fitness apps produced by this company.